The normal pH range for systemic arterial blood is between 7.35 and 7.45. Any levels that drop below a pH of 7.35 is a condition known as acidosis. Any levels that rise above a pH of 7.45 is known as alkalosis. Acidosis can depress the central nervous system, which if severe enough, can lead to death. Alkalosis can overly excite the central nervous system causing muscle spasms, convulsions, and even death. Either end of the spectrum can result in an unwanted outcome
Define each condition by including the levels of PCO2 or HCO3- and the pH levels.
Identify at least three or more common causes for each condition.
Describe the compensatory mechanism for each condition in detail; include whether the kidneys or lungs assist.
Describe treatment mechanisms for each condition when the regular compensatory mechanisms are not working well.
Describe how older age may compromise the acid-base balance processes. Be sure to include any changes associated with the kidneys and the lungs.
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