Directions: Please answer the following questions using complete sentences. A minimum of one paragraph is required for each response. Each paragraph must be five to seven sentences in length.
- What are the benefits of the budgeting process?
- Describe how an operating budget is constructed.
- Describe how a cash-flow budget is constructed.
- Describe how a capital budget is constructed.
- What is a ratio analysis? How is horizontal analysis different from vertical analysis?
- What is a business plan?
- Describe each of the five planning pitfalls entrepreneurs often encounter.
- Identify the benefits of a business plan (a) for an entrepreneur and (b) for financial sources.
- Briefly describe each of the major segments to be covered in a business plan.
- Outline some of the critical points to capture in an elevator pitch.
Directions: Read the cases below and answer the questions using complete sentences. Your completed submission should be at least five pages in length in APA format. Be sure to use and cite at least two outside, scholarly sources. Visit the Academic Resource Center for helpful APA formatting techniques.
Case Study I: It’s All Greek to Her
When Regina McDermott opened her auto repair shop, she thought her 15 years of experience with cars was all she would need. To a degree, she was right—within six months, her shop had more work than it could handle, thanks to her widening reputation. At the same time, however, Regina has found it necessary to spend more and more time dealing with financial planning.
Three weeks ago, her accountant came by to discuss a number of finance-related matters. One of these is the need for cash budgeting. “I can work up a cash budget for you,” he explained. “However, I think you should understand what I am doing so you will realize the importance of the cash budget and be able to visualize your cash inflows and outflows. I think you also need to make a decision regarding the new equipment you are planning to purchase. This machinery is state of the art, but, as we discussed last week, you can buy a number of different types of machinery. You are going to have to decide which is the best choice.”
Regina explained to her accountant that she was indifferent about which equipment to buy. “All of this machinery is good. Perhaps I should purchase the cheapest.” At this point, the accountant explained to her that she could use a number of ways to evaluate this type of decision. “You can base your choice on the payback method—how long it takes to recover your investment in each of these pieces of equipment. You can base it on net present value by discounting future cash flows to the present. Or you can base it on internal rate of return under which the cash flows are discounted at a rate that makes the net present value of the project equal to zero.”
Regina listened quietly; when the accountant was finished, she said, “Let me think about the various ways of evaluating my capital investment, and I will get back to you. Then, perhaps you and I can work out the numbers together.” Her accountant said this sounded fine to him and he left. Regina began to wish she had taken more accounting courses while in college. As she explained to her husband, “When the accountant begins to talk, it is all Greek to me.”
- What is the purpose of a cash-flow budget? What does it reveal? Of what value would it be to Regina? Who would generally review this information and what might they do with it? Be sure to analyze the topic very thoroughly and cite at least two sources.
- How does the payback method work? How does the net present value method work? How would you explain each of these methods to Regina? What are the most useful methods for Regina’s business and why?
- How does the internal rate of return method work? How would you explain it to Regina? At what point does Regina need to work on these calculations and when are they not of added value to her?
Case Study II: It’s Just a Matter of Time
Pedro Santini has been a computer analyst for five years. In his spare time, he has developed a word processing software program that is more comprehensive and powerful than any on the market. Because he does not have a great deal of money, Pedro believes that the first step in producing and marketing this product should be to obtain the necessary venture capital.
The software program has been written and trial-tested by Pedro and a handful of friends to whom he gave the material. Two of these friends are computer word processors who told him that the program is faster and easier to use than anything on the market. Pedro believes that these kinds of testimonials point out the profit potential of the product. However, he still needs to get financial support. One of Pedro’s friends has suggested a meeting with a venture capitalist. “These guys have all sorts of money to invest for new ventures,” the friend told Pedro. “All you have to do is explain your ideas and sell them on giving you the money. They are always looking to back a profitable idea, and yours is certain to be one of the best they have seen in a long time.”
Pedro agrees with his friend, but believes he should not discuss the matter with a venture capitalist until he has thought through answers to the various types of questions likely to be asked. In particular, Pedro believes he should be able to provide the venture capitalist with projected sales for the first three years and be able to explain the types of expenses that would be incurred. Once he has done this, Pedro feels that he will be ready to talk to the individual. “Right now,” he tells his friends, “it is just a matter of time. I think that, within seven to ten days, I will be ready to present my ideas and discuss financial needs.”
- In addition to financial questions, what other questions is the venture capitalist likely to ask Pedro? What should Pedro be ready for? What are some questions a VC may ask that it is clear Pedro is not ready to answer, or to what questions would he have an incomplete or unacceptable answer?
- Would a business plan be of any value to Pedro? Why or why not? Should Pedro have had one already? Will a VC care about a lack of business plan? Support your answer.
- How would you recommend Pedro get ready for his meeting with the venture capitalist? List out what questions he should be prepared to answer, what documents he should have ready, and how he should prepare his elevator pitch. Be complete in your answer.
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