What is the foundation of morals? I

1) What is the foundation of morals? In other words, what does the theory ‘utilitarianism’ claim?

2) What are only things desirable as ends? What does it mean to say something is desirable as an end?

3) Egoism: the ethical doctrine that morality has its foundations in self-interest. Why is utilitarianism not egoism?

4) Why would someone say that “utilitarianism is a doctrine worthy of swine?”

5) What is Mill’s response to the objection that “utilitarianism is a doctrine worthy of swine?” (hint: he has three responses)

6) “It may be objected that many who are capable of the higher pleasures occasionally, under the influence of temptation, postpone them to the lower.” To what is this an objection? What is Mill’s response?

7) How is it possible to decide which are the best pleasures?

8) Explain the objection that happiness cannot be the rational purpose of life. Why would someone make this objection?

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