Compare digit recall for numerical stimuli presented in an auditory and visual format.

I will upload some more to help with the hypothesis.


The data for the Research Project is posted in an Excel spreadsheet in the Course Content of our classroom. I chose data contributed by college students associated with a number of American universities. Each team will need to determine which variables in this data set will serve as independent and dependent for their report (there are several valid possibilities). You will also choose the appropriate statistical analysis based on this choice. You should choose only one independent variable and one dependent variable (if anyone wants to attempt a more complex analysis, contact me as soon as possible to discuss and get permission after I determine whether or not I think your team can handle the necessary analyses).

Note that, while the information provided below contains important information you should include in your research report, you must use your own words in your report – do not quote from this section. Write up the information as you understand it in your own words and use APA style references as appropriate. You can use the reference mentioned below, but you will need to elaborate significantly in your introduction section based on the independent and dependent variables you choose to examine. Your method section may also differ from the information presented below; for example, if you choose to only examine visual data, then you don’t need to discuss auditory data (or visa versa). The choices your team makes will determine what information needs to be reported in your paper and poster.

Go to and find the “Numerical Memory” experiment (there are a variety of ways to get to here). Our class is registered as “PSYC300 – Fall 2012”. It’s also listed under “Research Methods” for “Univerisity of Maryland University C” and the class ID is 5706. You will need that class ID to have your responses recorded for future use by my classes.

You will go through all the steps that every other subject went through (including practice and actual participation in the experiment). Make sure you take notes or keep screen shots of what the experience is like so you can refer back when you are writing the Method section for your report.
At the end of your succesful participation in the study, you will be given your User ID . This is your confirmation that your data has been successfully recorded. Turn in this number to the Study Participation conference in order to receive credit for participation.
This website has several very nice tutorials on how to conduct descriptive and inferential statistical analyses in Excel ( and their examples use data from very similar spreadsheets.
(APA Editor: Karen Brakke) {further editing by Lorri Cerro}
Brief Introduction
The presentation of a series of digits orally by an examiner to an examinee is a common measurement typically referred to as Digit Span in many intelligence measures. In the majority of these intelligence tests, the researcher presents the digits to the examinee in an auditory format only, at which time the examinee repeats the digits back to the examiner. The rationale for this type of task is that it provides a good measure of short-term auditory memory and attention. Because the participant must orally recall the auditory information in the proper sequence, the digit span task is often described as a sequencing task (Sattler, 1992). This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual’s short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory versus visual format.
Study Details
DESIGN: This study uses a within-subjects design comparing digit recall for numerical stimuli presented in an auditory and visual format. {While the basic design of this study is within-subjects, there are also several between-subjects variables reported in the data set to facilitate different types of analyses. How you describe the design of your team’s study in your research report depends on the choices you make. That means your paper should describe the study as you identify the variables, not the way it is described for the original study.}
EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS: Computers used in this experiment must have a sound card. Research participants must either use a earphones or a pair of speakers plugged into the "audio out" jack on the sound card.
STIMULI: The stimuli for this study consist of numerical values ranging from 0 to 9. These numerical values are presented to the research participant in one of two formats: visual or auditory. The auditory digits (AD) are voice input recorded using Microsoft Window’s Sound Recorder. Each AD was edited down to approximately 1 second in duration with equivalent amplitudes. Using this procedure, 10 digits were approximately equivalent in length and intensity. The 10 visual digits (VD) were produced using an Authorware5 display icon. Each VD was produced in Times New Roman font in black text with a 175-font size. The display time for each VD was set for 1 second.
TASK: Each participant engages is two tasks. The participant is presented with either the VIS (visual presentation) or AUD (audio presentation) task, followed by the alternate task (AUD or VIS). The order of task presentation is randomized for each participant. Both the VIS and AUD tasks involve the presentation of a sequence of numbers presented in a random order. Each task begins with a sequence that is one digit in length. The length of the sequence increases by one digit after a level has been presented twice. Each sequence of digits presented to the participant is randomized and, therefore, unique. Research participants move to the next level of difficulty if they respond correctly to at least one of the two trials presented at each level. This process continues until the participants miss both trials at a given level, at which time participants will either complete the second task (AUD or VIS), or the experiment will be terminated.

Figure 1
As illustrated in Figure 1, data are compiled in an Excel spreadsheet or in a comma delimited file with the following labels:

USERID – the value assigned to the individual participant
CLASSID – the value affiliated with the registered course
GENDER & AGE are self explanatory
DATE – the date of subject participation
TIME – elapsed number of seconds for completion of the entire experiment
AUD – data reflect, similar to the Digit Span WISC-III Subtest, the number of items in correct sequence (Auditory format). The trial is terminated when the participant fails two consecutive trials in any series.
VIS – data reflect, similar to the Digit Span WISC-III Subtest, the number of items in correct sequence (Visual format). The trial is terminated when the participant fails two consecutive trials in any series.
Sattler, J.M. (1992). Assessment of Children: Revised and Updated Third Edition.
San Diego, CA: Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

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