For your first paper, you are tasked with carefully reading and analyzing one ancient Greek historical speech. You can choose from the three below, one by Herodotus and the other two by Thucydides. The speeches are all about 5-7 pages long.Your paper should be 3-5 pages long, typed, double-spaced using a 12-point font and 1-inch margins. You will need to cite the speech you are analyzing, which involves including the section and line numbers in parentheses after quotations or paraphrases. Your Works Cited page only needs to include the website where you will access the reading assignment. Heres a brief guide about citing ancient sources:https://www.haverford.edu/classics/resources/guide-citing-sources-classics(Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.General Guidelines:First, you should summarize the speech you can give an overall summary, or summarize it paragraph by paragraph. I recommend printing the text, and then reading through it once to get the gist, and then re-reading it and annotating as you go along (underlying, highlighting, writing thoughts in the margins).Second, you should provide a critical analysis of the speech. Here are some questions you might consider: What are the prejudices of the writer that are revealed in the speech? What do the speeches reveal about Greek values? (Or Athenian values?) You should structure your paper around these questions (that is, dont simply write a long, unstructured paragraph with no topic sentences, merely wandering from one idea to the next).Last, you should not use any outside sources at all. I am interested in your analysis of the text, not what you can find on Google. When you look things up before you read and analyze, then you borrow ideas without really considering what you think. Im interested in what you think.Background on the two authors that you should consider depending on which speech you choose:Herodotus, the author of the speech in Topic I, is called the Father of History. He was born about 485 BC in Halicarnassus, which is one of the Ionian city-states (in modern-day Turkey) that revolted against the Persians in 499-494 BC and started the Persian Wars. He is called the first Greek historian, and wrote an account of the Persian Wars published about 440 BC (notice thats about 40 years after the end of the war).At the beginning of the Persian debate (see topic below), Herodotus says, At this meeting speeches were made, to which many of the Hellenes give no credence, but they were made nevertheless. Notice here that Herodotus says the Hellenes dont believe this account (Hellenes is another word for the Greeks), but he proceeds to tell the story anyway.Thucydides, the author of the speeches in Topics II and III, is often considered the greatest of the Greek historians because of his careful research, reasoned analysis, and elevated style of writing. He claims that he fought in the Peloponnesian War, but was later exiled from Athens. Since he was writing about contemporary events that occurred during his lifetime, he is generally considered more reliable than Herodotus. His account of the war ends in 411 BC (the war lasted until 404 BC) so he most likely died while writing his book.Thucydides tells us how he reconstructed speeches he includes (of which you have a choice of two). Take this into account as you read your chosen speech. Thucydides on speeches: https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/thucydid.aspChoose ONE of the following topics:Topic IThe Persians Reject Democracy (Read through section III.88)By HerodotusThis speech recounts a supposed debate among a group of Persians about what kind of government they should have. They were a group of seven co-conspirators who had just overthrown what they believed was an illegitimate ruler.https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/ancient/herodotus-persdemo.asp(Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Topic IIFuneral Oration of PericlesBy ThucydidesThis is a funeral oration (a eulogy/speech) given after the first year of the Peloponnesian War by Pericles, who was an important Athenian general and politician. The speech outlines the accomplishments of the Athenians.https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/ancient/pericles-funeralspeech.asp(Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Topic IIIThe Mitylenean DebateBy Thucydideshttp://mccandlessa.people.cofc.edu/Thucydides.htm#The%20Mitylenian%20Debate(Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.The Mitylenean Debate was a political debate in Athens after the city of Mitylene (which was on one of the Greek islands) tried to leave the Athenian Empire (remember that the Athenian Empire began with voluntary membership in the Delian League). There are two sides of the debate one is to conquer Mitylene, then kill the men and enslave the women and children; the other is to punish the leaders but show mercy to inhabitants of the city. In a very exciting turn of events, the kill and enslave everyone side wins and the Athenians send out the ships. But, after some cooling off, they change their mind and send an even faster ship to overtake the first one.(Note: The Mitylenean Debate is followed by the Melian Dialogue. You dont need to read the Dialogue, so when you get to that point, you can stop.)
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