# Identify the level of measurement for each of your variables: nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio.

Instruction For The Paper
– 2 Full Pages
– No Plagiarism
At least 3 peer reviewed articles
Make sure you answer all of the following question
-This paper will be turn in using : www.turnitin.com use proper citation

Topic: How does Police use of legitimate force affect the offender resistance arrest?

1) Provide a causal statement: ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œIn my study, I will be examining the effect of _______________ on _____________.ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â

2) Identify your unit of analysis.

3) Provide a conceptual definition for your two key concepts/terms in your causal statement. That is, explain specifically what each concept means. For example, if one of your concepts is recidivism, explain what you mean by recidivism.

5) Provide an operational definition for your key concepts/terms. That is, explain how you will measure each concept.

6) Identify the level of measurement for each of your variables: nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio.

7) Provide the appropriate citations for three peer reviewed articles related to your topic.

***This Is An Example How Should The Paper Should Be Done***

1) Provide a causal statement:

In my study, I will be examining the effect of the victim-offender relationship on the victimÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s decision to report rape to the police.

2) Identify your unit of analysis.

The unit of analysis is the individual rape victim.

3) Provide a conceptual definition for your two key concepts/terms in your causal statement.

The victim offender relationship refers to whether or not the victim knew the offender. The victimÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s decision to report rape to the police refers to whether or not the victim officially reported the rape to the police.

4) Identify your main independent variable (IV) and your dependent variable (DV).

IV = stranger offender
0 = no, the offender was someone that the victim knew
1 = yes, the offender was a stranger the victim had never seen before

DV = victim reported rape to the police
0 = no, the victim did not report the rape to the police
1 = yes, the victim reported the rape to the police

5) Provide an operational definition for your key concepts/terms.

I will use data from the rape subset of the National Crime Victimization Survey to create a measure of stranger offender and to create a measure of victim reported rape to the police. Specifically, to measure stranger offender, I will use the victimÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s response to the following survey question: ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œWas the offender someone you knew or a stranger you had never seen before?ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â If the victim responded by saying that the offender was someone he/she knew, then stranger offender will be coded 0 ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œno, offender was someone the victim knew.ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â If the victim responded by saying that the offender was a stranger he/she had never seen before, then stranger offender will be coded 1 ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œyes, offender was a stranger the victim had never seen before.ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â

The victimÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s response to two separate questions will be used to measure victim reported rape to the police: ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œwere the police informed or did they find out about this incident in any wayÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â and ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œhow did the police find out about it.ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â If the victim responded ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œnoÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â to the first question, then the variable victim reported to the police will be coded 0 for ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œno, the victim did not report the rape to the police.ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â If the victim responded ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œyesÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â to the first question, but then indicated that someone else reported the rape to the police, then victim reported to the police will be coded 0 ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œno, the victim did not report the rape to the police.ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â If the victim responded ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œyesÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â to the first question and then indicated that they were the ones that called the police to report the rape, then victim reported to the police will be coded 1 ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œyes, victim reported the rape to the police.ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â

6) Identify the level of measurement for each of your variables: nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio.

The level of measurement for the independent variable, stranger offender, is nominal because there are only two categories that simply classify whether or not the offender was a stranger. The level of measurement for the dependent variable, victim reported the rape to the police, is nominal because there are two categories that classify whether the victim reported the rape to the police.

7) Provide the appropriate citations for two peer reviewed articles related to your topic.
Felson, Richard B., Messner, Steven F., and Anthony Hoskin. 1999. ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œThe Victim-Offender Relationship and Calling the Police in Assaults.ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â Criminology, 37(4): 931-
Fisher, Bonnie S., Daigle, Leah E., Cullen, Francis T., and Michael G. Turner. 2003. ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œReporting Sexual Victimization to the Police.ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30(1): 6-38

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