What is a null hypothesis in causal research and what does it mean to say that a study has failed to reject the null hypothesis?

All papers must be MS Word documents that are double-spaced in 12-point Times New Roman font with 1 inch margins. Do not use PDF or any other format. Use the APA citation style for all of your citations and references. All work must be submitted to the appropriate dropbox on a single MS Word document.This is the main written assignment for the unit. Write four discussions, one about each of the topics below. Answer every part of every question. Each of the four discussions must contain at least 250 words no exceptions. There is no maximum write as much as you would like. This is a 150-point assignment – up to 37.5 points per each of the four questions. Make sure you fully address them all.Answer the following Show That You Know questions for this unit:What does the margin of error tell us about a sample taken from a large population? How does the confidence level for a sample outcome differ from the samples margin of error?

How do randomized, prospective and retrospective studies differ from one another? What are the major advantages and disadvantages of each type of study?
Describe each of the fallacies listed below and make up an example of each.
a) False anomalies
b) Questionable arguments by elimination
c) Illicit causal inference
d) Unsupported analogies and similarities
e) Untestable explanations and predictions
f) Empty jargon
Answer all four questions on the same MS Word document (.docx or .doc). Do not use PDF or any other format.Label each question. You may do so by repeating the question and following it with your response. The words of the question do not count toward the required 250.You are required to use and cite at least two sources in every answer. The course textbook is primary and is required for every question, but you must use internet research as well. In addition to the textbook, for each question response you are required to use at least one credible reference source found on the internet. These sources must be properly cited where used and be properly listed at the end of the paper. You normally will have at least 5 sources on your reference list. This allows you to benefit from all that the textbook has to offer and as well helps you to further develop your internet skills in finding research quality material for your papers.Please use this book for sources:
Carey, S. S. (2012). A beginner’s guide to scientific method (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

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