# Briefly describe why it is commonly used in early empirical design equations for flexible pavements. (8 points)

2. Define empirical and mechanistic-empirical design methods. Also, briefly describe the
process necessary to update each type of method if the design conditions changes (e.g., if
legislation increases the legal axle load limits by 30 percent or if some new materials are
used in the pavements.). (10 points)3. Describe the mechanism of reflection cracking and two strategies for extending the life of
an asphalt concrete overlay of a cracked old rigid highway pavement with respect to
reflection cracking. (8 points)4. Briefly describe the difference between Equivalent Single Wheel Load (ESWL) and
Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL). (8 points)5. Briefly describe how mixed traffic is handled in the AASHTO 1993 Design Guide, PCA
method and the AASHTO 2002 Design Guide (MEPDG) for rigid highway pavements.
(10 points)6. Describe the differences between the resilient modulus of asphalt concrete, the resilient
modulus of granular material, and the resilient modulus of fine-grained soil, with respect
to stress dependence. (8 points)7. Briefly describe what performance indices (or distresses) of flexible pavements are
designed for in the AASHTO 1993 Design Guide, Asphalt Institute Method, and the
AASHTO 2002 Design Guide (MEPDG)? (8 points)8. In portland cement concrete pavements, what are the three main ways by which load can
be transferred from one slab to its adjacent slab? (8 points)9. Briefly describe the mechanism of transverse joint faulting in rigid pavements. List one
design measure that can reduce the development of faulting. (8 points)10. What is the main purpose of steel in jointed reinforced concrete pavements? Briefly
describe what curling is and what contributes to it. What are the shapes of a curled
concrete slab in the day and at night? (10 points)11. Briefly describe the influence of layer thickness and material modulus on layer stiffness
(you may use an approximate mathematical equation to explain your answer). For a rigid
pavement, which way reduces the critical stresses more significantly: increasing cement
concrete modulus or increasing slab thickness? (8 points)12. Briefly describe how design reliability is considered in the AASHTO 1993 Design Guide,
and the AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design (formerly known as MEPDG) for asphalt
pavements. (6 points)

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