The impact of Tourist Personalities and Risk Factors on Backpacking Activities: A case Study on Turkey

Abstract: State very briefly: the aim of the research; methods of inquiry and analysis; the main findings of the study. This is generally best written when the rest of the work is complete. The abstract must be of approx. 200 words. A good abstract should be self-contained, which means that the reader must be able to understand the nature and findings of your research paper without reading the whole paper. Page ii Acknowledgements This is a formal acknowledgement of those who have provided assistance to you in the completion of your assignment, such as people who have provided library/data/technical assistance and if you wish your supervisor, colleagues and family. Page iii Table of Contents The table of contents lists the headings and sub-headings (and page numbers) exactly as they appear in the text. (See table 1.2) Page iv & v List of Figures and List of Tables These list figures and tables that have been used throughout the paper. Figures show information so patterns can be seen, for example diagrams, graphs, models, etc. Tables give statistical information, numbers, counts, etc. Both tables and figures are numbered according to which chapter they appear in. For example if a table appears in chapter 4, the first table is numbered table 4.1; the second one is numbered 4.2 and so on. Each table and figure has a title. (See table 1.3 and 1.4) Page vi List of Appendices This section is used to present information that you want to include for the sake of completeness but would be excessive in the main body of the paper. For example, you have to include a copy of the questionnaire used or interview questions asked. Other examples of appendices are statistics (do not include long lists in the text), some background information, maps, pictures if really necessary, etc. Do not include raw data, or any other unnecessary material to bulk up the paper. Appendices should be referred to in the text as Appendix I, II III, and IV etc. Each item has to be clearly labelled in the text. They should be numbered in the same order as they appear in the research paper. (See table 1.5) Chapter 1: Introduction The Introduction should demonstrate the relevance and importance of your research. The reader should be introduced to the background of the study, the nature of the problem being discussed and why the topic was chosen. You may start from something broad and then narrow it down. A lot of detail is not needed at this stage as the coming chapters will explain that. As part of the Introduction you should state a clear rationale, having identified a knowledge gap in the literature and demonstrate your motivation behind the particular research topic. In other words: You should tell the reader why you feel the researchis worth the effort (Saunders et al. 2003, p.30). All too often these chapters have good literature reviews but the particular questions addressed by the project are scarcely mentioned. At the end of the Introduction, after the appropriate literature has been reviewed and put into context, explicitly state the aims and objectives. This part informs the reader of exactly what you want to achieve with your research paper. An aim is what you want to achieve overall, and objectives are smaller stepping stones taken to achieve the aim. For this size of research paper it should not be more than five objectives. Examples may be: to investigate, to assess, to analyse, to explore, to discuss, etc. Chapter 2: Literature Review This chapter includes comprehensive information and theories of various authors and sources. The purpose is not to describe but to critically review the literature in relation to your chosen topic. In this chapter you will set the scene for the reader while bringing you topic in a broad context. Therefore you will need to evaluate concepts, theories, models, and definitions that apply to your topic and relate to your aim. For example, when your topic is Empowerment application in Hotel Hyatt, then in your literature review you will inform the reader about general motivation theories, about people motivation at work in general, you will review the different concepts of empowerment, and the application of empowerment in other hotel case examples. As much as possible of recent information is needed here (for example if you discuss tourism arrivals to China, the latest statistics are needed, not information from 1998). Chapter 3: Methodology You should address research design issues that would improve the nature of the study and its results. Which approach would you choose for your particular research, quantitative or qualitative? What data collection methods would you adopt to accomplish your objectives? State details regarding such aspects as sampling, reliability/dependability, and validity/credibility. Also reflect on the objectivity/confirmability. Do not just state for example that a bigger sample would be better; the rationale for possible changes should be provided. You may also elaborate on the generalisability/transferability of your research findings and on how your research may be redesigned to achieve a greater span of influence on the research subjects or participants. Ethical issues and limitations concerning the data gathering process and research works in a particular company must also be discussed and specific suggestions for avoiding ethical conflicts should be proposed. Chapter 4: Discussion The chapter allows you to discuss the objectives you have identified at the beginning of your research process. You must discuss what you have found and apply the concepts, theories, models to the subject of your research objectives; all theories as well as tables, figures, and statistical analyses should be referred to in this chapter. In this chapter, while you will discuss your objectives in a focused way, you must also relate back to the literature and empirical studies you have reviewed in chapter 2. Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations In this chapter your critical evaluation is seen. You should not use any new material here. What overall conclusions can be drawn from your literature review and data (where appropriate)? It is necessary to link to your aim, research question and objectives. Have you reached your aim? Have you answered the research question? Have you achieved the objectives? In this chapter you display originality of thought when elaborating on the significance of your findings and when linking to your arguments. Recommendations might be for someone doing the same study in the future or for the organisation (Hotel Company for example) that you have analysed. Weaknesses in your study can be mentioned and suggestions how to avoid similar weaknesses in the future. You will discuss limitations of your particular study such as the size of sample, the snapshot nature of the research, or the restriction to one geographical area of an organisation (Saunders et al. 2009, p.538). References The reference section must be complete and presented in the correct format, containing all references cited in the paper. If there are references missing it is plagiarism. For sources that you opt not to cite in the paper but which you have however consulted for general information, create another list named Other sources consulted. Do not underestimate the amount of time that a reference section can take to complete and check. Make sure you follow Harvard style throughout the paper and in the reference list. The following web site may be referred to for style, but you will also receive online referencing guides during the semester to help you consult for accurate referencing and citation techniques according to Ulster University. The referencing guide will be given to you as a handout.

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