Did Nintendo have the pieces in place to take control of the gaming market? The Nintendo Wii U console had been on the market for only a short while, with the addition of innovative controls and new game titles. One of the key areas of discussion in the popular press was whether or not the console defined the next generation of gaming. There had been uncer- tainties among industry experts, such as Gabrielle Shrager of Ubisoft and Mikael Haveri of Frozenbyte, as to whether or not the improved power and new controller interface justified the system being considered a new generation.1 The Wii U initially launched with 50 available games and a new controller interface, termed the GamePad. While the GamePad offered a new take on the Wiis con- trols, the new console was still compatible with the same motion-sensing controllers of the original Wii. How- ever, the Wii U console was not sold with these control- lers included. Instead, it came with just one of the new GamePads. Incorporating traits from tablet devices, the GamePad integrated both traditional input methodssuch as buttons, dual analog sticks, and a D-pad (directional pad)and a touchscreen. The touchscreen could be used to supplement a game by providing alternative functional- ity or an alternative view of a scenario in a game. With the Off TV Play function, the screen could also be used to play a game strictly on the GamePad screen, without the use of a television display at all. With the Wii U console turned on, the GamePad could be used to display the same picture on its screen as would be seen using a TV display. There were also nongaming functions, such as the ability to use the GamePad as a television remote. While Nintendo was the first of the competitors to release its new gaming con- sole, there was no doubt that both Sonys PlayStation and Microsofts Xbox would be close behind in releasing their own upgraded systems. While Nintendo had hopes of becoming the leader in its industry with the Wii U, its initial sales were not what the company had anticipated. Its best week was its first: 400,000 Wii U units were sold in the week following its November 18, 2012, launch date. In Japan 300,000 units were sold in the consoles launch week (see Exhibit 1). Arvind Bhatia, an analyst from Sterne Agee, believed that * This case was prepared by Professor Alan B. Eisner and graduate students Eshai J. Gorshein, and Eric S. Engelson of Pace University. This case was based solely on library research and was developed for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation. Copyright 2015 Alan B. Eisner. Wii U sales at US mega-chain retailer GameStop were far below the companys initial expectations for the holi- day season. According to Bhatia, there was no shortage of Wii U units at GameStop outlets, a telltale sign that demand for the console was lacking during the holiday season.2 Sure enough, in January and February 2013 sales dropped dramatically, to roughly 57,000 and 64,000 units, respectivelysignificantly lower than the original Wii sales following its launch. This undoubtedly caused worry among the Nintendo team, who had experienced huge sales spikes at the introduction of the original Wii. Since its release, the Wii had led video games entrance totheculturalmainstream.NeithertheMicrosoftXbox360 nor the Sony PlayStation 3 offered the sorts of game controls that could truly appeal to a mass audience, and particularly to families that wanted to have fun together at home. Only the Wii had intuitive, motion-sensitive game controllers so gamers could sway the controller around and swing and twist it in space to bowl or evoke some other action on the screen. Nintendo was the only company of the group whose numbers were solely focused on the gaming industry. Both Microsoft and Sony had highly diversified operations, in which gaming played only a small role. Therefore, in com- paring their revenues, Nintendos numbers were much more impressive than they might have seemed at first glance. However, by the fall of 2010 the playing field was level, with Sony and Microsoft offering competition for the Wii motion-sensitive controllers. Looking at Kinect from Microsoft for the Xbox 360 and the Move system from Sony for PlayStation 3, it was clear that the two leading competitors had finally caught up with the Wiis lead in engineering and its ingenious human interface. For almost four years, the Wii had reshaped the home-entertainment experience. But, by 2011, some observers feared that the Wii no longer did anything unique that the PS3 or Xbox 360 would not do even better.3 PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 already had superior graphics to the Wii, and now they had motion-sensing controllers as well. With the debut of Nin- tendos new generation of consoles, one question remained uppermost: While Nintendos Wii U might have brought some intriguing improvements to the table, was it sub- stantial enough to be considered the new generation of gaming and would it encompass innovation that its com- petitors would not be able to matchor worsesurpass? While the original Wii was able to hold on to its lead for a sustained period of time, the initial outlook for the Wii U did not look so optimistic, with the release of competing consoles apparently not far behind.
Not too long after the release of the Wii U, Sony announced the planned release of its next gaming console, the PS4, on February 20, 2013. While Sony did not show the PS4 at its two-hour event in New York City that eve- ning, the console was made available in time for the 2013 holiday season.4 Nintendos inability to leap ahead of its competi- tion could be seen clearly in its financial figures. As of 2014, Nintendos income was off from previous years (see Exhibits 2 and 3). Background Although Nintendo dated back to 1889 as a playing-card maker, Nintendos first video-game systems were devel- oped in 1979 and known as TV Game 15 and TV Game 6.5 In 1980 Nintendo developed the first portable LCD video game with a microprocessor. In 1985 Nintendo created the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), an 8-bit video game console. The original NES was very successful, as its graphics were superior to any home-based console avail- able at the time. As a result, more than 60 million units were sold worldwide.6 The NES set the bar for subsequent consoles in platform design, as well as for accepting games that were manufactured by third-party developers. When competitors began developing 16-bit devices, such as Segas Genesis system and NECs PC Engine, Nintendo responded with its own 16-bit system, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). The Super Nin- tendo was released in 1991 and, when purchased, came with one game, Super Mario World. In 1996 Nintendo released Nintendo 64. The Nintendo 64 was the companys third-generation video game console and was named after the 64-bit processor. During its product lifetime, more than 30 million Nintendo 64 units were sold worldwide.7 The Nintendo 64, like its predecessors, used cartridges to play its games, but at the time the competing Sony and Sega systems were using CDs for game storage. Cartridges could store 64 megabytes of data, while CDs could store around 700 megabytes. Also, CDs were much cheaper to manufac- ture, distribute, and create; the average cost of producing a Nintendo 64 cartridge was $25, compared to 10 cents to produce a CD. Therefore, game producers passed the higher expense to the consumer, which explained why Nintendo 64 games tended to sell for higher prices than Sony Play- Station games. While most Sony PlayStation games rarely exceeded $50, Nintendo 64 titles could reach $70. To increase profits and to take advantage of the programming possibilities of the larger storage space, many third-party game developers that had traditionally supported Nintendo platforms began creating games for systems that used a CD platform (such as the PlayStation).8 In 2001 Nintendo released its GameCube, which was part of the sixth-generation era of video game systems. These systems included Sonys PlayStation 2, Microsofts Xbox, and Segas Dreamcast. Although the GameCube did not use cartridges, Nintendo began producing its games using a proprietary optical-disk technology. This technology, while similar in appearance to CDs, was actually smaller in diam- eter and could not be played using a standard CD player. Genyo Takeda, general manager of Integrated Research and Development for Nintendo, explained that innovation and creativity were fostered by giving several different devel- opment teams free rein to couple a dedicated controller or peripheral with a GameCube title and then seeing whether or not the end result was marketable. This project gave rise not only to the Donkey Kong Bongos and the Dancing Stage Mario Mix Action Pad, but also to a number of ideas and designs that would find their way into the Wii Remote.9 When Nintendo released the Wii video game console in 2006, it was already in the midst of a very competitive market. The previous generation of video game consoles consisted of the Sega Dreamcast, Sony PlayStation 2, Nintendo Game- Cube, and Microsoft Xbox. These systems were all released between 1999 and 2001 in the United States, and although the GameCube sold more systems than the Sega Dreamcast, it fell into third place behind the PlayStation 2 and the Xbox. The PlayStation 2 sold more than 115 million units worldwide, more than twice the combined unit sales of the GameCube and Xbox (21 million and 24 million, respectively). The Term Wii In 2006 Nintendo released its direct successor to the GameCube, the Wii (pronounced we). There were many reasons cited as to why the name Wii was chosen, but perhaps the most compelling reason was that Wii sounded like we, which emphasized that the console was for everyone. Wii could be remembered easily by people around the world, no matter what language they spoke. No confusion.10 Initially the system was known by its code name, Revolution, but later the name was changed to Wii. Nintendo stated that it wanted to make the Wii a system that would make anyone who tried it talk to his or her friends and neighbors about it.11 The Making of the Remote The original Wii was created to establish a new standard in game control, using an innovative and unprecedented inter- face, the Wii Remote.12 The Wii Remote was what made the Wii unique. The remote acted as the primary controller for the Wii. Its motion-sensor capabilities allowed the user to interact with and manipulate objects on the screen by moving and pointing the remote in various directions. The Wii Remote was the size of a traditional remote control, and it was limited only by the game designers imagination.13 For example, in a game of tennis it served as the racket when the user swung his or her arm, while in a shooting game it served as the users gun. Not only did the remote serve as a controller, but it also had a built-in speaker and a rumble feature for even greater tactile feedback and game involvement. Exhibit 4 shows the Wii and Wii Remote.The second part of the Wii Remote innovation was the Wii Nunchuk. The Nunchuk was designed to per- fectly fit the users hand, and it connected to the remote at its expansion port. The Nunchuk had the same motion- sensing capabilities that the remote had, but it also had an analog stick to help the user move his or her charac- ters. The ambidextrous nature of the Wii controllers was something seldom seen in other game controllers; the Wii controllers permitted the user to hold the remote and Nunchuk whichever way felt most comfortable.14 In addi- tion to the analog stick, the Nunchuk had two buttons that gave the user quick access to other game functions. Thus, the Nunchuk offered some of the benefits of a standard game controller coupled with the high-technology motion sensors of the remote. Users could hold a Nunchuk in one hand and the Wii Remote in the other while playing the Wii Sports boxing game and be transported into the box- ing ring with on-screen opponents. The game controls were intuitive for jabs and punches; however, a missed block did not hurt as much as if one were really in the boxing ring. While the Wii U was still compatible with the original Wii controllers, Nintendo revamped the controller usability EXHIBIT 5 Wii U GamePad Controller when designing the Wii U. The new GamePad sold with the Wii U allowed the user to be more in touch with the game and provided more depth by offering multiperspec- tive capabilities on the Pads screen. While using the TV display, players could now multitask within a game by using a variety of functions on their controller and could even play using solely the GamePad, with no TV display necessary. With the game console turned on, players had the option of using the GamePad as their main viewing screen, without the need for a TV monitor display (see Exhibit 5). Features In addition to the Wii Remote, there were other features unique to the Wii. One was the Wii Menu, which was the first screen that appeared on the television when the Wii was turned on. According to Nintendo, the Wii Menu eas- ily integrated itself into the everyday lives of its users.15 The menu displayed several different icons; one of them was the Mii Channel (pronounced me). This channel gave users the ability to create and personalize a 3-D caricature of themselves. Another icon was the Everybody Votes Channel, which permitted individuals to vote in national and worldwide polls on a variety of topics. There was also the New Channel, which gave the individual breaking news from around the world, organized into a variety of topics. The Forecast Channel allowed the individual to view weather reports from anywhere around the world. Users also had the ability to download older Nintendo games from the Wii Shopping Channel. The Wii Message Board allowed users to leave messages on the Wii for other users of the same console or leave reminders for themselves. The Internet Channel allowed individuals to surf the Internet from their Wii. The Photo Channel allowed the user to view photos stored on a standard SD memory card. And, lastly, there was the Disc Channel, which gave the user the ability to play Wii games or Nintendo GameCube discs.16 The Wii was backward-compatible with the Nintendo GameCubes games, memory cards, and controllers. Innovative Enhancements In 2014, Nintendo introduced Amiibo figurines that depicted popular Nintendo characters and each contained a wireless antenna and flash memory. They allowed con- sumers to include digital versions of their favorite charac- ters in compatible video games. The toys to life segment had been created in 2011 when Activision Blizzard launched the hugely successful Skylanders line of games and figures. Disney subsequently jumped into the ring by launching a competing product, Disney Infinity, in August 2013. Nintendo hoped to penetrate the segment and boost sales of its Wii U console and 3DS handheld in the process. In late 2014, the company released its first round of Amiibo characters: Mario, Peach, Yoshi, Donkey Kong, Link, Fox, Samus, Wii Fit Trainer, Villager, Pikachu, Kirby, and Marth. It also planned to launch a host of additional popular char- acters like Zelda, Luigi, Diddy Kong, Little Mac, Pit, and Captain Falcon in 2015.17 Demographics According to Nintendo, one of the key differences between the Wii and competitors systems was the broad audience that the Wii targeted.18 Many of the Wii games could be played by people of all ages, and the Wii Remote and Nun- chuk were easier to use than the complicated controllers of the Sony PlayStation 3 or Microsoft Xbox 360. Nintendos TV commercials for the Wii showed people of different ages and social classes playing the Wii. According to Nintendo, the Wii Remote allowed people of all ages to enjoy its use. The Wii offered something for both the advanced gamer and the person who had never played a video game before. The advanced gamer would enjoy the remotes unique features, whereas the novice gamer could use the remote as his or her hand and wouldnt need elaborate instructions on how to play a new game straight out of the box. Although the Nintendo games were easily played by a greater range of ages, the graphics were undoubtedly a relative weakness of the product.19 Thus, while Nintendo hoped to target people of all ages, it had long been seen as a system that made video games for children, as evident from its Mario, Zelda, and Donkey Kong series. However, despite this limitation, the innovation and uniqueness of its game play was enough to lure the masses, and sales were excellent. Success, of course, bred competition. Upon seeing the success of the movement-sensing Wii, Microsoft and Sony moved quickly to release competing systems. Microsoft released its Kinect for the Xbox 360, while Sony released the Move for the PS3. Both the Move and Kinect used camera systems for their motion detectors, but in different ways. Moves camera sensed the movement of the light- up Move controller, whereas Microsofts Kinect sensor tracked skeletal motion, eliminating the need for a control- ler.20 While it was inevitable that gamers would have their favorite of the bunch, the relevant point was that it didnt take long for Microsoft and Sony to catch up to Nintendo. They moved forward to the new generation(s) of gaming on an even playing field for gamer interaction and motion detection. Gaining the Interest of Game Developers As evident from the history of game consoles, game devel- opers had tried to make games more and more complex with each new generation of systems. This meant that more money was invested in the production of each subse- quent generation of games. Because game developers were spending more money on developing games, they were at great financial risk if games did not succeed. Thus, many developers felt more secure in simply creating sequels to existing games, which in turn restricted innovation. The Wiis innovative controller, the Wii Remote, required a rethinking and reengineering of the human interface by game developers and programmers. Another issue with developing games for the Wii was that its graphics were not quite as good as those of the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, and therefore game developers were required to be more creative and develop special Wii editions of their games. Many game developers used virtual-machine software in developing new games. It was believed that game devel- opers could develop games for the Wii and then make them for other platforms on the basis of the same programming, thereby reducing production costs. However, while the Wii Remote distinguished itself from its competitors, it created a hurdle for developers. When developers created a game for the PlayStation 3, they could create the same game for the Xbox 360 and vice versa. When developers created a game for the Wii, however, it required significant rework to deploy the title for the other platforms. Converting a title from the Xbox 360 or PlayStation 3 also required signifi- cant work to modify the game to incorporate code for the Wii Remotes special features. The Wii Us GamePad also had special features that made it less easily compatible with the likes of Microsoft and Sony. While this had served Nintendo well in the past, it also limited the selection of games available to the Nintendo audience. The selection of games had to be ful- filling enough to keep Nintendos audience happy, without leaving them feeling that they were missing out on games available only on the other platforms. This was already a going concern with the Wii U, as many of the currently available games were refurbished versions of Nintendo classic games, with more to come, such as Super Mario, Mario Kart, and Zelda.21 The Competition The launch of the Wii U and the announcements of com- peting systems by Microsoft and Sony in late 2012 and early 2013 were the beginning of the battle for market share in the fierce competition of the eighth generation of video game consoles (see Exhibit 6). The price of $299 for the basic Wii U included the con- sole, the GamePad, and an HDMI cord. The deluxe edition priced at $349 included all of the above, plus stands for both the console and the GamePad, a charging dock for the GamePad, and the game Nintendo Land.22 While the prices of both the PlayStation 4 and the new Xbox were unknown, at a base price of $299 the Wii U was intended to compete with the upper echelon of the next generation of gaming consoles, unlike the low-cost provider position that the original Wii possessed. Xbox 360 The Xbox 360 by Microsoft was released in November 2005. While the configurations were changed several times, the Xbox 360 was available at two different prices: $299.99 for the 250-GB model and $199.99 for the 4-GB model as of 2011. However, although its higher-end model was pricier than the Wii, Microsoft was in fact losing money on every Xbox sale, due to costs of production and manufacturing. One of the important features of the Xbox 360 was Xbox Live. This feature allowed individuals to play online against other users around the world. Thus, Microsoft had created a community of individuals who were able to com- municate with one another by voice chats and play against each other in a video game. Another service offered by Xbox Live was the Xbox Live Marketplace, which enabled users to download movies, game trailers, game demos, and arcade games. It was estimated that more than 70 percent of connected Xbox users were downloading content from the Xbox Live Marketplace, totaling more than 8 million members. According to Microsoft, there were more than 12 million downloads in less than a year and, due to this popularity, major publishers and other independent gamers had submitted more than 1,000 Xbox Live games.23 Kinect for Xbox 360 In November 2010 Microsoft introduced Kinect for Xbox 360, which was based around a webcam-style add-on peripheral for the Xbox 360 console. It enabled users to control and interact with the Xbox 360 using gestures and spoken commands, without the need to touch a game controller. Kinect allowed the Xbox 360 to see the user and act according to the users motions and gestures. This took the concept of the Wii and pursued it to its natural culmination, making the user the game controller. Kinect used software technology that enabled advanced gesture recognition, facial recognition, and voice recognition. Some critics believed that the concept used by Kinect had potential far beyond games and might even become a new way of controlling computers of all kinds. It automatically identified who one player was and paused when the player left its vicinity, so it was not hard to imagine this ingenuity controlling all kinds of devices, such as a PC, smartphone, or tablet.24 Xbox Next Generation While little information had been officially released about the next-generation Xbox, some assumptions could be made. Media outlets had been leading heavy discussion regarding the consoles seemingly certain release in time for the 2013 holiday season, putting it in direct competition with Sonys PlayStation 4. With both Sony and Nintendo making headway in the motion-detecting department, Microsoft would certainly do the same, either improving upon its Kinect or investing in a new device, similar to Sonys approach. Microsoft recently filed a patent relating to projecting augmented reality 3-D images onto the walls of the room the user was gaming in, in an effort to more fully immerse the user in the experience. With the code name Fortaleza, this project had the basis of the Kinect technology at its core. While still speculative, it was sup- posedly going to work with Wi-Fienabled glasses, similar to Googles Project Glass glasses.25 Sony PlayStation 4 While no pricing had been set, there was a lot that was known about the PlayStation 4. The PS4 would include 8 GB of GDDR5 memory, which would enable rapid perfor- mance. Also, Sony revealed that, using the loading power of this memory, the user would be able to power down the PS4 midgame and then later turn it back on and within seconds be playing again right where he or she left off. The PS4 would support Blu-ray discs, DVDs, and HDMI output, as well as analog and optical digital output. The included controller was the DualShock 4 pad. Its design and function were similar to that of the PS3 controller, but it offered upgraded vibrations, enhanced motion sen- sors, and a Vita-like touchpad. Sony revealed that the PS4 would launch with the ability to stream games directly to the PS Vita, Sonys handheld gaming device. As with the Wii U, this would allow users to play on the tablet control- ler through a wireless connection, without the use of a TV display. As for games, a number of titles had already been revealed for the PS4 during prelaunch. These included Diablo III (Blizzard), Driveclub (Evolution Studios), Final Fantasy (Square Enix), and several others.26 Part of the PlayStation Networks success was the ability to play games online. This allowed individuals to play with other players located in other parts of the world. The Play- Station Network allowed users to download games, view movie and game trailers, send text messages, and chat with friends, and these capabilities were sure to continue. PlayStation Move In September 2010, Sony released the PlayStation Move, which basically copied the Wiis wandlike controller but with more accuracy. As with the Wii, users could wave the Moves controller around and swing it like a bat and hit the ball on the screen. The PlayStation Move com- bined a video camera with a physical controller packed with motion-sensing electronics, making it a technological cross between the Kinect and the Nintendo Wii. The Move Motion Controller, or wand, combined a gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetic sensor to track the controller in three dimensions, while the glowing ball at the end gave the PlayStation Eye camera a visual reference for handling aiming, cursor movement, and other motion.27 While Wiis graphics were of low resolution and inferior detail, PS3 was a high-definition powerhouse. As one user said, On the Wii, golf looks like a video game. On the PS3, golf looks like a golf course. Moreover, the PS3 played Blu- ray movie discs and could display 3-D images, two things the Wii could not do. Also, the PS3 had a full lineup of great traditional games. Sony had shipped 4.1 million units of PlayStation Move worldwide in the first two months after its release. Although Sony was criticized for merely imitating Wiis technology, it turned out to be a successful imitation.28 The only obvious difference from Wii was the cost. While the Wii cost $199 and came with both the Wii Sports and Wii Sports Resort compilations (most buyers also added a second controller for around $40), the PS3 with Move cost twice as much, $400, and came with only one game compilation, called Sports Champions. A sec- ond Move controller cost around $50. The least expensive version of the PlayStation 3, which did not include Move, cost $350. Thus, Nintendo and Sony offered comparable controllers rigged to machines with very different tech- nical power and with quite different prices. Despite the significant difference in price, however, the Move was a successful product offering for Sony. While the 4 Eye was being introduced with the PS4, Sony still intended to include and utilize the Move as well, but to what degree was uncertain. PlayStation 4 Eye This device was a newly developed camera system that was introduced for the first time with the release of the PlayStation 4. It utilized two high-sensitivity cameras equipped with wide-angle lenses and 85-degree diagonal angle views. Sony claimed that the cameras could cut out the image of a player from the background or differenti- ate between players in the background and foreground, enhancing game play. If it worked flawlessly, this would be a significant advancement in the realm of motion-sensing game play, one that Microsoft and Nintendo might not have the technology to match. There was also speculation that this new technology would include logging in through facial recognition and using voice and body movements to play games more intuitively.29 Mobile Gaming Recently another form of competition in the gaming industry became widely available. Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets allowed casual gamers to have the ability to download and play a wide variety of free or low- priced games. The games could be seamlessly downloaded to the handheld device. While the interactivity on these devices was limited by a lack of controls and features, the convenience and price factors that they represented were something that console makers were starting to notice. The Future of Wii U While Sony and Microsoft envisioned long-term profits on software sales of PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, both companies experienced losses producing their seventh- generation consoles. Among the three rivals, Nintendo was the only one earning a significant profit margin on each Wii unit sold. According to David Gibson at Macquarie Securities, sales of the Nintendo Wii brought $6 of oper- ating profit per console.30 While Sonys and Microsofts gaming consoles were commonly thought of as superior to Nintendos, perhaps the Wiis simplicity and family- friendly appeal assisted in its ability to become profitable. These traits attracted not only end users but game develop- ers as well, allowing the Wii to have the largest selection of games compared with its competitors. Initially there were 235 games for the Nintendo Wii by the end of its release year. By early 2011, however, the total number of games for the Wii was 860, exceeding the total number of games available for its main competitor, Xbox 360 (782 games), depending on whether one counted backward compat- ibility with previous-generation games. The number of games indicated that the Wii was obviously a successful systemone that had drawn a good amount of interest from game developers and gamers around the world. However, with Microsoft shipping record number of Kinect units within the first few months of its release, some analysts started predicting that the Nintendos dom- inance in video game consoles was over. Microsoft and Sony had started to invade the casual family-user mar- ket, a key market for Nintendos Wii, expanding beyond their former customer base of mainly hard-core gamers. TheXboxandPS3werebecomingmorelikeanentertain- ment hub for families. Now, with the Wii U on the market and the introduction of its eighth-generation competitors expected soon, the competition seemed to be better suited to combat Nintendo. As motion-sensing gamingthe undisputed next best thing to come out of the gaming industrywas a capability that all competitors now encompassed, it would be a matter of whose system was most desirable to the gaming population and whether or not this solely would determine which system came out on top. With this technology being widespread across the industry, it might prove to be that much more difficult for Nintendo to set itself apart and portray itself as the fam- ily favorite, as it did in its early days with the Wii. To win over the gaming population, could Nintendo rely on its lower price or its quantity of games, or would it have to find a new leg to stand on? With both of its competi- tors yet to release their next-generation consoles, perhaps the Wii U could attain a lead by simply being the first to market. Or would the new Amiibo figurines be the key to Nintendos regaining its position as the eminent player in the interactive gaming market?
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